born 25.02.1957

professor of plant ecology, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Department of Botany, Tartu University, 40 Lai St, Tartu 51005, Estonia
Head of the Centre of Excellence FIBIR (Frontiers in Biodiversity Research)

Tartu University: Graduated in biology (ecology) in 1980. Awarded Ph.D. in 1984: thesis on "Ecology and dynamics of coastal alvar communities in Estonia"

- Member of the committee of research policy at the Estonian Ministry of Science and Education
- Member of the council of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tartu
- Member of the council of the Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu
- Vice-president of the International Association for Vegetation Science
- Editor of the Journal of Vegetation Science

M. Pärtel - 1993, R. Kalamees - 1995, K.-A. Saar - 1996 (co-supervisor with M. Pärtel), M. Otsus - 1999, M. Suurkask - 1999, I. Pilt - 2000, H. Laarmann - 2001, E. L. Tuvi - 2002, L. Petryna (University of Rio Cuarto, Argentina) - 2002, K. Rünk - 2003.

M. Pärtel, 1997. Species diversity and community dynamics in calcareous grassland communities in western Estonia.
M. Moora, 1998. The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis on the competition and coexistence of calcareous grassland plant species.
R. Kalamees, 1999. Seed bank, seed rain and community regeneration in Estonian calcareous grasslands.
J. J. Cantero (University of Rio Cuarto, Argentina), 1999. Plant community diversity and habitat relationships in central Argentina grasslands.
H. Jutila (University of Turku, Finland, co-supervisor with H. Toivonen), 1999. Vegetation and seed bank of grazed and ungrazed baltic coastal madows in SW Finland
M.Öpik (co-supervision with M.Moora), 2004. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of perennial plants and their effect on plant performance.
M. Otsus, 2004. Plant community regeneration and species diversity in dry calcareous grasslands.
R. Aguraiuja, 2005. Hawaiian endemic fern lineage Diellia (Aspleniaceae): distribution, population structure and ecology.
K. Rünk (
co-supervision with K.Zobel), 2007.Comparative ecology of three fern species: Dryopteris carthusiana, D.expansa and D.dilatata.
A Uibopuu (co-supervision with M. Öpik), 2013. Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in spruce forest ecosystem and their effect on performance of forest understorey plant species.
Ü. Saks (co-supervision with M. Öpik), 2013. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity patterns in boreonemoral forest ecosystems.

Current supervision of PhD students:
Jaak-Albert Metsoja
Lena Neuenkamp

 - EU 6th framework integrated project ‘Ecochange. Challenges in assessing and forecasting biodiversity and ecosystem changes in Europe’, 2007-2011
 - EU7th framework integrated project ’Scales. Securing the conservation of biodiversity across administrative and spatial, temporal and ecological scales’, 2009-2014
 - Targeted financing
2008-2013 by the Ministry of Education and Science: Vegetation patterns, coexistence and mechanisms behind them
 - Estonian Science Foundation grant
2008-2011: Arbuscula mycorrhizal fungal communities in forest ecosystems – their composition and function


1. Analysis of vegetation structure and the processes behind the pattern in grassland and forest communities. Which processes are responsible for diversity maintenance? Is regeneration limited by the lack of seeds, the lack of safe  microsites or the lack of the appropriate fungal symbiont? What is the share of biotic and abiotic factors in generating the between- and within-stand variation in community structure and composition?
2. Restoration of biodiversity in seminatural grassland ecosystems. Is it possible to restore the original species composition in overgrown or cultivated seminatural grasslands? Is the additional input of diaspores needed? What is the optimal management regime? 
3. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in global and regional scales and forces behind the variation of diversity.
4. Is mycorhhiza balancing competition and increasing plant species evenness and diversity? Is the patchiness of AM fungal communities determining the structure of plant populations and communities?
5. Theory of species coexistence and analysis of ecological mechanisms maintaining species diversity. Concepts of the so-called species pool theory. Interrelation between biological diversity, primary productivity and ecosystem services.

Papers in refereed journals

Zobel, M.
, Moora, M. & Herben, T. 2010 Clonal mobility and its implications for spatio-temporal patterns of plant communities: what do we need to know next? Oikos, 119(5), 802 - 806.

Walther, G.R., Roques, A., Hulme, P.E., Sykes, M.T., Pysek, P., Kühn, I., Zobel, M., Bacher, S., Botta-Dukat, Z., Bugmann, H., Czucz, B., Dauber, J., Hickler, T., Jarosik, V.,; Kenis, M., Klotz, S., Minchin, D., Moora, M., Nentwig, W., Ott, J., Panov, V.E., Reineking, B., Robinet, C., Semenchenko, V., Solarz, W., Thuiller, W.,; Vila, M., Vohland, K.& Settele, J. 2010. Alien species in a warmer world: risks and opportunities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24(12), 686 - 693.

Vellak, A., Tuvi, E. L., Reier, U., Kalamees, R., Roosaluste, E., Zobel, M. & Partel, M. 2009. Past and present effectiveness of protected areas for conservation of naturally and anthropogenically rare plant species. Conservation Biology 23: 750-757.

Öpik, M., Metsis, M., Daniell, T. J., Zobel, M. & Moora, M. 2009. Large-scale parallel 454 sequencing reveals host ecological group specificity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a boreonemoral forest. New Phytol 184: 424-437.

Moora, M., Öpik, M., Zobel, K. & Zobel, M. 2009. Understory plant diversity is related to higher variability of vegetative mobility of coexisting species. Oecologia 159: 355-361.

Luck, G. W., Harrington, R., Harrison, P. A., Kremen, C., Berry, P. M., Bugter, R., Dawson, T. P., De Bello, F., Diaz, S., Feld, C. K., Haslett, J. R., Hering, D., Kontogianni, A., Lavorel, S., Rounsevell, M., Samways, M. J., Sandin, L., Settele, J., Sykes, M. T., van den Hove, S., Vandewalle, M. & Zobel, M. 2009. Quantifying the contribution of organisms to the provision of ecosystem services. BioScience 59: 223-235.

Zobel, M. & Partel, M. 2008. What determines the relationship between plant diversity and habitat productivity? Global Ecology and Biogeography 17: 679-684.

Öpik, M., Moora, M., Zobel, M., Saks, U., Wheatley, R., Wright, F. & Daniell, T. 2008. High diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a boreal herb-rich coniferous forest. New Phytol 179: 867-876.

Liira, J., Schmidt, T., Aavik, T., Arens, P., Augenstein, I., Bailey, D., Billeter, R., Bukacek, R., Burel, F., De Blust, G., de Cock, R., Dirksen, J., Edwards, P. J., Hamersky, R., Herzog, F., Klotz, S., Kuhn, I., Le Coeur, D., Miklova, P., Roubalova, M., Schweiger, O., Smulders, M. J. M., van Wingerden, W. K. R. E., Bugter, R. & Zobel, M. 2008. Plant functional group composition and large-scale species richness in European agricultural landscapes. Journal of Vegetation Science 19: 3-14.

Dormann, C. F., Schweiger, O., Arens, P., Augenstein, I., Aviron, S., Bailey, D., Baudry, J., Billeter, R., Bugter, R., Bukacek, R., Burel, F., Cerny, M., de Cock, R., De Blust, G., DeFilippi, R., Diekotter, T., Dirksen, J., Durka, W., Edwards, P. J., Frenzel, M., Hamersky, R., Hendrickx, F., Herzog, F., Klotz, S., Koolstra, B., Lausch, A., Le Coeur, D., Liira, J., Maelfait, J. P., Opdam, P., Roubalova, M., Schermann-Legionnet, A., Schermann, N., Schmidt, T., Smulders, M. J. M., Speelmans, M., Simova, P., Verboom, J., Van Wingerden, W. & Zobel, M. 2008. Prediction uncertainty of environmental change effects on temperate European biodiversity. Ecology Letters 11: 235-244.

Billeter, R., Liira, J., Bailey, D., Bugter, R., Arens, P., Augenstein, I., Aviron, S., Baudry, J., Bukacek, R., Burel, F., Cerny, M., De Blust, G., de Cock, R., Diekoetter, T., Dietz, H., Dirksen, J., Dormann, C., Durka, W., Frenzel, M., Hamersky, R., Hendrickx, F., Herzog, F., Klotz, S., Koolstra, B., Lausch, A., Le Coeur, D., Maelfait, J. P., Opdam, P., Roubalova, M., Schermann, A., Schermann, N., Schmidt, T., Schweiger, O., Smulders, M. J. M., Speelmans, M., Simova, P., Verboom, J., van Wingerden, W. K. R. E., Zobel, M. & Edwards, P. J. 2008. Indicators for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes: a pan-European study. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 141-150.

Aguraiuja, R., Zobel, M., Zobel, K. & Moora, M. 2008. Conservation of the endemic fern lineage Diellia (Aspleniaceae) on the Hawaiian Islands: can population structure indicate regional dynamics and endangering factors?  Folia Gebotanica et Phytotaxonomica 43: 3-18.

Aavik, T., Jogar, U., Liira, J., Tulva, I. & Zobel, M. 2008b. Plant diversity in a calcareous wooded meadow - The significance of management continuity. Journal of Vegetation Science 19: 475-484.

Aavik, T., Augenstein, I., Bailey, D., Herzog, F., Zobel, M. & Liira, J. 2008a. What is the role of local landscape structure in the vegetation composition of field boundaries? Applied Vegetation Science 11: 375-386.

Zobel, M., Kalamees, R., Püssa, K., Roosaluste, E. & Moora, M. 2007. Soil seed bank and vegetation in mixed coniferous forest stands with different disturbance regimes. Forest Ecology and Management 250: 71-76.

Teder, T., Moora, M., Roosaluste, E., Zobel, K., Pärtel, M., Kõljalg, U. & Zobel, M. 2007. Monitoring of biological diversity: a common-ground approach. Conservation Biology 21: 313-317.

Pärtel, M. & Zobel, M. 2007. Dispersal limitation may result in the unimodal productivity-diversity relationship: a new explanation for a general pattern. Journal of Ecology 95: 90-94.

Pärtel, M., Laanisto, L. & Zobel, M. 2007. Contrasting plant productivity-diversity relationships in temperate and tropical regions: the role of evolutionary history. Ecology 88: 1091-1097.

Partel, M., Helm, A., Reitalu, T., Liira, J. & Zobel, M. 2007. Grassland diversity related to the Late Iron Age human population density. Journal of Ecology 95: 574-582.

Moora, M., Daniell, T. J., Kalle, H., Liira, J., Püssa, K., Roosaluste, E., Öpik, M., Wheatley, R. & Zobel, M. 2007. Spatial pattern and species richness of boreonemoral forest understorey and its determinants – a comparison of differently managed forests. Forest Ecology and Management 250: 64-70.

Dormann, C. F., Schweiger, O., Augenstein, I., Bailey, D., Billeter, R., De Blust, G., DeFilippi, R., Frenzel, M., Hendrickx, F., Herzog, F., Klotz, S., Liira, J., Maelfait, J. P., Schmidt, T., Speelmans, M., van Wingerden, W. K. R. E. & Zobel, M. 2007. Effects of landscape structure and land-use intensity on similarity of plant and animal communities. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 774-787.

Öpik, M., Moora, M., Liira, J. & Zobel, M. 2006. Composition of root-colonising arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in different ecosystems around the globe. Journal of Ecology 94: 778-790.

Hobbs, R. J., Arico, S., Aronson, J., Baron, J. S., Bridgewater, P., Cramer, V. A., Epstein, P. R., Ewel, J. J., Klink, C. A., Lugo, A. E., Norton, D. A., Ojima, D., Richardson, D. M., Sanderson, E. W., Valladares, F., Vila, M., Zamora, R. & Zobel, M. 2006. Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Global Ecology and Biogeography 15: 1-7.

Zobel, M., Öpik, M., Moora, M., Pärtel, M. 2006. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: It is time for dispersal experiments. - Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 543-547.

Dengler, J., Rusina, S., Boch, S., Bruun, H. H., Diekmann, M., Dierssen, K., Dolnik, C., Dupre, C., Golub, V. B., Grytnes, J. A., Helm, A., Ingerpuu, N., Löbel, S., Pärtel, M., Rasomavicius, V., Tyler, G., Znamenskiy, S. R. & Zobel, M. 2006. Working group on dry grasslands in the Nordic and Baltic region - outline of the project and first results for the class Festuco-Brometea. Annales Botanici 6: 73-100.

Diaz, S., Tilman, D., Fragione, J., Stuart Chapin III, F., Dirzo, R., Kitzberger, T., Gemmill, B., Zobel, M., Vila, M., Mitchell, C., Wilby, A., Daily, G. C., Galetti, M., Laurance, W. F., Pretty, J., Naylor, R., Power, A., Harvell, D., Potts, S., Kremen, C., Griswold, T., Eardley, C., Ceallos, G., Lavorel, S., Orians, G., Pacala, S. & Supriatna, J. 2005. Biodiversity regulation of ecosystem services. Millenium ecosystem assessment. Ecosystems and human well-being, pp. 297-329. World Resources Institute, Washington.

Reier, Ü., Tuvi, E.-L., Pärtel, M., Kalamees, R. & Zobel, M. 2005. Threatened herbaceous species dependent on moderate forest disturbances: a neglected target for ecosystem-based silviculture. - Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 20:145-152. 

Zobel, M., Otsus, M., Rünk, K., & Liira, J. 2005. Can long-dstance dispersal shape the local and regional species pool. - Folia Geobotanica 40: 35-44.

Zobel, M. & Kalamees, R. 2005. Diversity and dispersal – can the link be approached experimentally? - Folia Geobotanica 40: 3-12.

Pärtel, M., Kalamees, R., Reier, Ü., Tuvi, E.-L., Roosaluste, E., Vellak, A. and Zobel, M. 2005. Grouping and prioritization of vascular plant species for conservation: combining natural rarity and management need. - Biological Conservation 123: 271-278.

Aguraiuja, R., Moora, M., and Zobel, M. 2004. Population stage structure of Hawaiian endemic fern taxa of genus Diellia (Aspleniaceae): implications for monitoring and regional dynamics. - Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 1438-1445.

Rünk, K., Moora, M. and Zobel, M. 2004. Do different competitive abilities of three fern species explain their different regional abundances? - Journal of Vegetation Science 15: 351-356.

Otsus, M. and Zobel, M. 2004. Moisture conditions and the presence of bryophytes determine fescue species abundance in a dry calcareous grassland. - Oecologia 138: 293-299.

Moora, M., Öpik, M., and Zobel, M. 2004. Performance of two Centaurea species in response to different root-associated microbial communities and to alterations in nutrient availability. - Annales Botanici Fennici 41, 263-271.

Moora, M., Öpik, M., Sen, R., and Zobel, M. 2004. Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities differentially influence the seedling performance of rare and common Pulsatilla species. - Functional Ecology 18, 554-562.

Öpik, M., Moora, M., Liira, J., Kõljalg, U., Zobel, M., and Sen, R. 2003. Divergent arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities colonize roots of Pulsatilla spp. in boreal Scots pine forest and grassland soils. - New Phytologist 160, 581-593.

Moora, M., Sõber, V. and Zobel, M. 2003. Responses of rare (Viola elatior) and a common (Viola mirabilis) congeneric species to different management conditions in grassland - is different light competition ability responsible for different abundances? - Acta Oecologica 24: 169-174.

Cantero, J. J., Liira, J., Cisneros, J. M., Gonzalez, J., Nunez, C., Petryna, L., Cholaky, C. and Zobel, M. 2003. Species richness, alien species and plant traits in Central Argentine mountain grasslands. - Journal of Vegetation Science 14: 129-136.

Zobel, M. and Zobel, K. 2002. Studying plant competition: from root biomass to general aims. - Journal of Ecology 90: 578-580.

Petryna, L., Moora, M., Nunes, C. O., Cantero, J. J. and Zobel, M. 2002. Are invaders disturbance-limited? Conservation of mountain grasslands in Central Argentina. - Applied Vegetation Science 5: 195-202.

Otsus, M. and Zobel, M. 2002. Small-scale turnover in a calcareous grassland, its pattern and components. - Journal of Vegetation Science 13: 199-206.

Kalamees, R. and Zobel, M. 2002. The role of the seed bank in gap regeneration in a calcareous grassland community. - Ecology 83: 1017-1025.

Cantero, J. J., Cabido, M., Nunez, C., Petryna, L., Zak, M. R. and Zobel, M. 2001. Clasificacion de los pastizales de suelos sobre rocas metamorficas de las Sierras de Cordoba. - Kurtziana 29: 27-77.

Pärtel, M., Moora, M. and Zobel, M. 2001. Variation in species richness within and between calcareous (alvar) grassland stands: the role of core and satellite species. - Plant Ecology 157: 205-213.

Pärtel, M., Zobel, M., Liira, J. and Zobel, K. 2000. Species richness limitations in productive and oligotrophic plant communities. - Oikos 90: 191-193.

Onipchenko, V. G. and Zobel, M. 2000. Mycorrhiza, vegetative mobility and the responses to disturbance of alpine plants in the Northwestern Caucasus. - Folia Geobotanica 35: 1-11.

Zobel, M., Otsus, M., Liira, J., Moora, M. and Möls, T. 2000. Is small-scale species richness limited by seed availability or microsite availability? - Ecology 81: 3274-3282.

Pärtel, M., Kalamees, R., Zobel, M. and Rosen, E. 1999. Alvar grasslands in Estonia: variation in species composition and community structure. - Journal of Vegetion Science 10: 561-570.

Zobel, M., Pilt, I., Moora, M., Pärtel, M. and Liira, J. 1999. Small-scale dynamics of plant communities in an experimentally polluted and fungicide-treated subarctic birch-pine forest. - Acta Oecoligica 20: 29-37.

Pärtel, M., Mändla, R. and Zobel, M. 1999. Landscape history of a calcareous (alvar) grassland in Hanila, western Estonia, during the last three hundred years. - Landscape Ecology 14: 187-196.

Pärtel, M. and Zobel, M. 1999. Small-scale plant species richness in calcareous grasslands determined by the species pool, community age and shoot density. - Ecography 22: 153-159.

Cantero, J. J., Pärtel, M. and Zobel, M. 1999. Is species richness dependent on the neighbouring stands? An analysis of the community patterns in mountain grasslands of central Argentina. - Oikos 87: 346-354.

Pärtel, M., Kalamees, R., Zobel, M. and Rosen, E. 1998. Restoration of species-rich limestone grassland communities from overgrown land: the importance of propagule availability. - Ecolical Engineering 10: 275-286.

Moora, M. and Zobel, M. 1998. Can arbuscular mycorrhiza change the effect of root competition between two conspecific plants of different ages? - Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 613-619.

Kalamees, R. and Zobel, M. 1998. Soil seed bank composition in different successional stages of a species rich wooded meadow in Laelatu, western Estonia. - Acta Oecologica 19: 175-180.

Zobel, K., Moora, M., Niemelä, P., Brown, V.K. and Zobel, M. 1997. Secondary succession and summer herbivory in a subarctic grassland: community structure and diversity. - Ecography 20: 595-604.

Zobel, M. 1997. The relative role of species pools in determining plant species richness - an alternative explanation for species coexistence? - Trends in Ecology & Evolution 12: 266-269.

Zobel, M., Moora, M. and Haukioja, E. 1997. Plant coexistence in the interactive environment: arbuscular mycorrhiza should not be out of mind. - Oikos 78: 202-208.

Zobel, M., Suurkask, M., Rosen, E. and Pärtel, M. 1996. The dynamics of species richness in an experimentally restored calcareous grassland. - Journal of Vegetion Science 7: 203-210.

Pärtel, M., Zobel, M., Zobel, K. and Van der Maarel, E. 1996. The species pool and its relation to species richness - evidence from Estonian plant communities. - Oikos 75: 111-117.

Moora, M. and Zobel, M. 1996. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on inter- and intraspecific competition of two grassland species. - Oecologia 108: 79-84.

Bakker, J. P., Olff, H., Willems, J. H. and Zobel, M. 1996. Why do we need permanent plots in the study of long-term vegetation dynamics. - Journal of Vegetion Science 7: 147-156.

Zobel, M. and Moora, M. 1995. Interspecific competition and arbuscular mycorrhiza: importance for the coexistence of two calcareous grassland species. - Folia Geobot.Phytotax. 30: 223-230.

Pärtel, M. and Zobel, M. 1995. Small-scale dynamics and species richness in successional alvar plant communities. - Ecography 18: 83-90.

Zobel, K., Zobel, M. and Rosen, E. 1994. An experimental test of diversity maintenance mechanisms, by a species removal experiment in a species-rich wooded meadow. - Folia Geobot.Phytotax. 29: 433-437.

Zobel, K., Zobel, M. and Peet, R. 1993. Change in pattern diversity during secondary succession in Estonian forests. - Journal of Vegetation Science 4: 489-498.

Zobel, M. and Kont, A. 1992. Formation and succession of alvar communities in the Baltic land uplift area. - Nordic Journal of Botany 12: 249-256.

Zobel, M. 1992. Plant species coexistence - the role of historical, evolutionary and ecological factors. - Oikos 65: 314-320.

Kull, K. and Zobel, M. 1991. High species richness in an Estonian wooded meadow. - Journal of Vegetation Science 2: 711-714.

Zobel, M. and Masing, V. 1988. Bogs changing in time and space. - Arch.Hydrobiol. 27: 41-45.

Zobel, M. 1988. Autogenic succession in boreal mires - a review. - Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 23: 417-445.

Zobel, K. and Zobel, M. 1988. A new null hypothesis for measuring the degree of plant community organization. - Vegetatio 75: 17-25.


Moora, M. & Zobel, M. 2010. Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Plant-Plant Interactions. Impact of Invisible World on Visible Patterns. Pugnaire F. I. (Ed.). Positive interactions and plant community dynamics (79 - 98). Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC PRESS

Fitter, A. H., Bulte, E., Elmqvist, T., Rinaldo, A., Setälä, H., Stoll-Kleemann, S., Zobel, M. & Murlis, J. 2009. Ecosystem services and biodiversity in Europe. EASAC policy report 09. The Royal Society, London.

Bakker, J. P., Willems, J. H. and Zobel, M. (eds.). 1996. Long Term Vegetation Dynamics. - Opulus Press, Uppsala.

Zobel, M., Palmer, M. W., Kull, K. and Herben, T. (eds.). 1994. Vegetation Structure and Species Coexistence. - Opulus Press, Uppsala.

Zobel, M. (ed.). 1988. Dynamics and Ecology of Wetlands and Lakes in Estonia. - Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR, Tallinn.

Other parer and Chapters in books

Liira, J., Aavik, T., Parrest, O. & Zobel, M. 2008. Agricultural sector, rural environment and biodiversity in the central and eastern European EU member states. AGD Landscape & Environment 2: 46-64.

Pärtel, M., Helm, A., Roosaluste, E. & Zobel, M. 2007. Bioloogiline mitmekesisus Eesti pool-looduslikes ökosüsteemides. In: Punning, J. M. (ed.)Keskkonnauuringute nüüdisprobleeme, pp. 223-302. TLÜ Ökoloogia Instituut, Tallinn. (in Est)

Dengler, J., Rusina, S., Boch, S., Bruun, H. H., Diekmann, M., Dierssen, K., Dolnik, C., Dupre, C., Golub, V. B., Grytnes, J. A., Helm, A., Ingerpuu, N., Löbel, S., Pärtel, M., Rasomavicius, V., Tyler, G., Znamenskiy, S. R. & Zobel, M. 2006. Working group on dry grasslands in the Nordic and Baltic region - outline of the project and first results for the class Festuco-Brometea. Annales Botanici 6: 73-100.

Renker, C., Zobel, M., Öpik, M., Allen, M. F., Allen, E. B., Vosatka, M., Rydlova, J. & Buscot, F. 2004. Structure, dynamics and restoration of plant communities: does arbuscular mycorrhiza matter? In: Temperton, V., Hobbs, R., Nuttle, T. & Halle, S. (eds.) Assembly Rules and Restoration Ecology - Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice, pp. 189-229. Island Press, Washington.

Aaviksoo, K., Ilomets, M. and Zobel, M. 1994. Dynamics of mire communities: a Markovian approach (Estonia). - In: Patten, B. C. (ed.), Wetlands and Shallow Continental Water Bodies, Vol. 2. SPB Acad.Publ., The Hague, pp. 23-43.


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